Coleção Camargo, located in the Biology Department of FFCLRP/USP, was initiated in 1965. Since then it has become an important reference in the study of the Neotropical bee fauna. Various expeditions to the Amazon and other areas of the Neotropical Region were crucial for the growth of this collection, as well as exchange of material with various museums in Brazil and other countries. Currently, this collection is estimated to comprise about 250,000 specimens of bees in general, mounted on pins or in preserved in fixative solution (therein included larvae, juveniles, males, workers, and queens of social species). Of those, more than 150,000 are Neotropical Meliponini (stingless bees) and this is the only collection worldwide to comprise a large number of works built by bees (pieces of nests) obtained from about 1000 nests studied in detail and photographic records of bionomic aspects of bees (approximately 5,500 slides). Coleção Camargo includes more than 1000 type specimens, among which 81 are primary types.