The Herbarium of the National Museum (R) of the Department of Botany of the National Museum (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) was founded in 1831, being the first herbarium in Brazil and one of the largest in Latin America. The herbarium consists of a total of approximately 500,000 specimens. The R-Fungi includes material collected by mainly by foreign naturalists during the 19th century, such as E. Ule, Malme, Santersson, Rick, Corner, Kimmerle, Hioram, among others. It consists of a total of approximately 4553 (ca. 1% of the general collection) specimens distributed in fungi (2039) and lichenized fungi (2514), covering distinct vegetation formations from Brazil and abroad. The R-Fungi collection is organized in compacting cabinets and in alphabetical order and is in good condition. Currently, the material is in the process of informatization. It is an active and continuously growing collection.