The Orchidarium of the Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e Biossistemática de Plantas (LBMBP-USP), Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP-USP), maintain an important collection of orchids from different regions of the world, but with emphasis on native species of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The collection is mainly focused on maintaining the species related to the projects developed in the laboratory LBMBP-USP, which are related to systematics, floral and reproductive biology, anatomy and histochemistry, evolution of pollination systems and floral resources of Orchidaceae, with emphasis on Oncidiinae, Stanhopeinae, Laeliinae and subfamily Vanilloideae. Vanilloideae is one of the most important subfamilies within Orchidaceae, because it includes the genus Vanilla, whose fruits are used in the production of flavor vanillin. Moreover, recently the lab has been dedicated to the reproduction of endangered orchid species, especially from the interior of state of São Paulo, with the purpose of reintroduction in areas considered as potentially protected. Thus, the Orchidarium has a very important role, acting as a potential DNA bank of native and exotic species, as well as being a precious source of specimens for studies on morphology, anatomy, histochemistry, and reproductive biology.