The SEMIA Rhizobia Culture Collection/FEPAGRO is responsible for maintenance and distribution of the strains for use in commercial inoculants in Brazil and is considered a national rhizobia reference collection by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA). The SEMIA collection originated in 1950 and has indicated strains to 200 leguminous plants of economic interest, with recording information cataloged each strain, as well as conducting feasibility studies, purity and authenticity testing. The first record of SEMIA collection was in 1973, the IBP World Catalogue of Rhizobium Collections, and is registered in WFCC (World Data Center on Microorganisms) with the number 443, being recognized by the identification SEMIA. The SEMIA Collection/FEPAGRO is also registered as a faithful Brazilian depositary institute for Ministry of Environment (MMA) under no. 075/2013/SECEX/CGEN. The collection services increasing demand imposed its growth in order to meet the needs of the research and, consequently, the spread of inoculation technology. Currently SEMIA Collection has about 908 strains comprising several genera with their type strains (Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Burkholderia, ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Methylobacterium and Rhizobium) indicated for 200 leguminous plants of economic interest. The SEMIA Collection is preserved as library resources on microbial diversity within modern agriculture and agroecology, these strains being recognized as one of the most important inputs at sustainable production system and has a good quality and reliable maintenance of its collection.