The mosquitoes collection of the Centro de Pesquisa René Rachou (Coleção de Mosquitos Neotropicais CMN-Fiocruz) has begun as “Coleção do Laboratório do Serviço de Estudos e Pesquisas sobre a Febre Amarela” at January 17 of 1933, with the activities for the control of yellow fever and malaria in Brasil, developed by “Serviços de Febre Amarela e de Erradicação da Malária”. It was kept in the “Instituto de Malariologia”, in Manguinhos, city of Rio de Janeiro. With the extintion of the “Instituto de Malariologia” in 1954 the collection of Culicidae was trasnfered, in 1955, together with equipment and 35 employees, to the recent built “Instituto de Pesquisas de Belo Horizonte”. René Guimarães Rachou runned this institute until 1957, leaving the Culicidae collection under the care of Sebastião Hamilton Xavier and Synésio da Silva Mattos, which were its curators since 1958 until 1990. In this year the Culicidae sistematics laboratory, which held the collection, was fused with the Culicidae biology laboratory of the “Centro de Pesquisas Renè Rachou”, under the leadership of Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli, who took the collection’s responsability until 1996. Since then the collection stayed without curatorship and inactive only receiving basic care of maintenance. In 2008 it was stabilished a biologic collections forum of the “Fundação Oswaldo Cruz”, aiming to support and reinforce the spreaded collections through the units. Although it was still not certificated by “Conselho de Gestão do Patrimônio Genético” (CGEN) nor reconized by Fiocruz, it was designed by the board of directors of CPqRR a curatorship for the Culicidade colection. On May 15 of 2002 the Culicidae collection, together with three others biological collections of CPqRR, was certificated as a faithfull depository institution of samples of genect heritage components with the CGEN (056/2012/SECEX/CGEN). In August 29 of 2013 the Culicidae of CPqRR ws reconized as the 30th collection of Fiocruz, with the name of “Coleção de Mosquitos Neotropicais (CMN-FIOCRUZ)”. Even though it was inactive since 1990, the collection is with its biological library and registration books in good state of preservation. There are 39,125 winged specimens of 414 species from 21 genus from Subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, which are representants of Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian and Palaearctic Regions, besides the male and female genitals, pupal and larval mounted stages on slides that are still not computaded. Within these specimens, 386 constitute the types of 77 species of the Neotropical Region, being 18 holotypes, 16 alotypes, 1 neotype and 358 paratypes.